Green fuel also known as biofuels
Is a type of fuel is produced from organic raw materials plants or trees, leaves, animal droppings, human, organic waste and Hua better than fossil fuels used widely in most countries of the world
Human Use of biomass as a fuel since the dawn of history has increased in recent years, global attention as one of the exploitation of bio-fuels and alternative energy sources after human adoption for several decades on traditional fossil fuels that caused the sharp climatic changes of the planet.
Biomass is defined as all materials that are obtained from plant or animal sources, and be renewable over a period of time, and this biomass can be exploited for the production of biofuels “Biofuel” Whether this fuel in the form of solid fuel such as coal, wood and animal waste or liquid bio-Caldezl and vegetable oils, ethanol, chain me or was this fuel to gaseous form Kalmithan and hydrogen.
Biofuels industry has undergone major developments since the beginning of this century, where previously used some agricultural products such as maize, sugar cane and others to produce a fuel that was used to run some transport engines, has supported many of the competent authority in the energy sector authorities this type of fuel, due to being a fuel renewed can as a substitute for fossil fuels, as it is clean and less polluting, since biofuels contain carbon newly be in the Earth’s atmosphere, and this differs from the fossil fuel that contains carbon has been removed from the earth’s atmosphere millions of years ago have been stored in the ground.
However, these positive features were at the expense of human food and food, where they are converting a large part of the plant grain such as corn for this type of fuel, as its production requires the exploitation of vast agricultural areas and the consumption of large quantities of water, fertilizers and pesticides, and make adjustments in the various modes of transport engines .
These constraints led to the development of chemical and energetic techniques to exploit organic and agricultural waste, Koawad corn and chips of wood and remnants of Agriculture and garbage cities for the production of biofuels, and to stop the exploitation of the grain and agricultural crops for energy production, and this led to the second generation of biofuels reactors that will work on the production of fuels can be developed used directly in engines or mixed with fossil fuels, has this technology have received significant support from a number of international companies and those interested in energy, where the recently announced British Airways that it will provide the engines of its aircraft fuel second generation extracted from waste and garbage and organic waste, and that with the end of the year 2015.
In order to achieve this goal, the construction of “Green Sky” station (Greensky) in London to handle organic waste and the production of biofuels, where the station will address about five hundred thousand tons of waste produced by the City of London different plant and waste, to produce sixty thousand tons of jet fuel in biofuels of the second generation reactors which can deal with all types of plant waste, as waste corn, wood, agricultural residues and organic matter plant.
Obstacles and solutions
Able bioreactors of the second generation to be a strong contender old bio-reactors, it is environment friendly and good efficiency, and also shows Enthusiasts have it soon will output them fuel a strong contender for fuel oil the traditional, as they do not need government support, and this encouraged the establishment A number of these reactors in several Kvnlunda and American countries.
Previous techniques have relied on the production of biofuels which is ethyl alcohol from the fermentation process of corn, sugar cane and others, where they are getting the ethanol that is blended with fossil fuels within specific ratios.
However, this process is applied to various plant waste and conduct traditional fermentation process is considered impossible, since the waste contains a long and strong chains of molecules, Valsleloz and lignin can not yeast that Thimanma, and this led researchers to use some of the enzymes and acids to address those long chains and strong , as was the use of thermal and chemical treatment method, called the switch to gas, where are those rich organic waste heating carbon to 3500 ° C using shells of plasma radiation, which produces gas compound consisting of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, a small percentage of carbon dioxide and a number of others of gas, and this modern method developed “Solina Fuels” company specializing in renewable energy production in the United States, and applied in the “Green Sky” station in London.
After obtaining the composite gas, it is moved to a chemical reactor, “Fischer-Tropsch” (Fischer-Tropsch), where hydrogen is mixed with carbon monoxide to form a long hydrocarbon chains liquid without double bonds or cyclic compounds, and this unit is characterized by small size, used catalysts cobalt that can chemical molecules engineering level nanometer and arranged in a long chain, and this unit is very similar to the switcher to gas “Baaomaks” limit (BioMax) in the state of Colorado of America, which can convert all the vital waste and organic waste types, the remains of food spoiled paper plant, wood waste to composite gas to be used instead of natural gas.
Fuel production method is characterized by a two-stage production of hydrocarbon fuel and clean devoid of cyclic compounds of bilateral ties, which qualifies it to be a clean fuel and does not pollute the environment.
A team of researchers have sought to develop this method using a single phase instead of two phases, where it is vital waste heat isolation from oxygen to five hundred degrees Celsius for liquids membership is purified and processed later to be converted into fuel, and you know this way -alta still Tjeribih- way Pyrolysis, which still need to be more research to rely in the future.
The steady progress in the production of biofuels research will bring to this type of fuel brilliance mission and its place as one of the oldest types of fuel known to man, and as fuel for the production of energy of the future